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Temporal range: Upper Permian[1] to recent
Scapania vegetative.jpg
A leafy liverwort, Scapania sp.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Marchantiophyta
Class: Jungermanniopsida
Subclass: Jungermanniidae
Order: Jungermanniales
H. Klinggr, 1858[2]

See text.

Jungermanniales is the largest order of liverworts. They are distinctive among the liverworts for having thin leaf-like flaps on either side of the stem. Most other liverworts are thalloid, with no leaves. Due to their dorsiventral organization and scale-like, overlapping leaves, the Jungermanniales are sometimes called "scale-mosses".[3]

Families of Jungermanniales[edit]

An updated classification by Söderström et al. 2016[4]


  1. ^ Oostendorp, Cora (1987). The Bryophytes of the Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca. Vol. 34. Berlin & Stuttgart: J. Cramer. p. 18. ISBN 3-443-62006-X.
  2. ^ Klinggräff, Hugo von (1858). Die höheren Cryptogamen Preussens. Königsberg: Wilhelm Koch. p. 10.
  3. ^ Schuster, Rudolf M. “Boreal Hepaticae a Manual of the Liverworts of Minnesota and Adjacent Regions.” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 49, no. 2, University of Notre Dame, 1953, pp. 257–684, https://doi.org/10.2307/2422089&lang=en.
  4. ^ Söderström; et al. (2016). "World checklist of hornworts and liverworts". PhytoKeys (59): 1–826. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.59.6261. PMC 4758082. PMID 26929706.

External links[edit]


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