|Yucca filamentosa naturalized in New Zealand|
Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae. Its 40–50 species are notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal panicles of white or whitish flowers. They are native to the hot and dry (arid) parts of the Americas and the Caribbean.
Early reports of the species were confused with the cassava (Manihot esculenta). Consequently, Linnaeus mistakenly derived the generic name from the Taíno word for the latter, yuca. The Aztecs living in Mexico since before Spanish arrival, in Nahuatl, call the local yucca species (Yucca gigantea) iczotl, which gave the Spanish izote. Izote is also used for Yucca filifera.
The natural distribution range of the genus Yucca (49 species and 24 subspecies) covers a vast area of the Americas. The genus is represented throughout Mexico and extends into Guatemala (Yucca guatemalensis). It also extends to the north through Baja California in the west, northwards into the southwestern United States, through the drier central states as far north as southern Alberta in Canada (Yucca glauca ssp. albertana).
Yucca is also native northward to the coastal lowlands and dry beach scrub of the coastal areas of the southeastern United States, along the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic States from coastal Texas to Maryland.
Yuccas have adapted to an equally vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. They are to be found in rocky deserts and badlands, in prairies and grassland, in mountainous regions, in light woodland, in coastal sands (Yucca filamentosa), and even in subtropical and semitemperate zones, although these are generally arid to semi-arid.
Yuccas have a very specialized, mutualistic pollination system, being pollinated by yucca moths (family Prodoxidae); the insect transfers the pollen from the stamens of one plant to the stigma of another, and at the same time lays an egg in the flower; the moth larva then feeds on some of the developing seeds, always leaving enough seed to perpetuate the species. Certain species of the yucca moth have evolved antagonistic features against the plant and do not assist in the plant's pollination efforts while continuing to lay their eggs in the plant for protection.
Yucca species are the host plants for the caterpillars of the yucca giant-skipper (Megathymus yuccae), ursine giant-skipper (Megathymus ursus), and Strecker's giant-skipper (Megathymus streckeri).
Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many species also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and more rarely roots. References to yucca root as food often arise from confusion with the similarly pronounced, but botanically unrelated, yuca, also called cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta). Roots of soaptree yucca (Yucca elata) are high in saponins and are used as a shampoo in Native American rituals. Dried yucca leaves and trunk fibers have a low ignition temperature, making the plant desirable for use in starting fires via friction. The stem (when dried) that sports the flowers is often used in collaboration with a sturdy piece of cedar for fire making. In rural Appalachian areas, species such as Yucca filamentosa are referred to as "meat hangers". The tough, fibrous leaves, with their sharp-spined tips, were used to puncture meat and knotted to form a loop with which to hang meat for salt curing or in smoke houses. The fibers can be used to make cordage, be it sewing thread or rope.
The flower petals are commonly eaten in Central America, but its reproductive organs (the anthers and ovaries) are first removed because of their bitterness. The petals are blanched for 5 minutes, and then cooked a la mexicana (with tomato, onion, chili) or in tortitas con salsa (egg-battered patties with green or red sauce). In Guatemala, they are boiled and eaten with lemon juice.
Yuccas are widely grown as architectural plants providing a dramatic accent to landscape design. They tolerate a range of conditions, but are best grown in full sun in subtropical or mild temperate areas. In gardening centres and horticultural catalogues they are usually grouped with other architectural plants such as cordylines and phormiums.
The yucca flower is the state flower of New Mexico in the southwest United States. No species name is given in the citation; however, the New Mexico Centennial Blue Book from 2012 references the soaptree yucca (Yucca elata) as one of the more widespread species in New Mexico.[N 1]
|Plant||Flowers||Species name||Common name|
|Yucca aloifolia L. (Type species) (syn. Yucca yucatana)||Aloe yucca, Spanish bayonet|
|Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. (including Yucca kanabensis)||Narrowleaf yucca, Spanish bayonet|
|Yucca arkansana Trel.|
|Yucca baccata Torr. (including Yucca thornberi)||Banana yucca, datil|
|Yucca baileyi Wooton & Standl. (syn. Yucca standleyi McKelvey)|
|Yucca brevifolia Engelm.||Joshua tree|
|Yucca campestris McKelvey|
|Yucca capensis L.W.Lenz|
|Yucca carnerosana (Trel.) McKelvey|
|Yucca cernua E.L.Keith|
|Yucca coahuilensis Matuda & I.L.Pina|
|Yucca constricta Buckley||Buckley's yucca|
|Yucca decipiens Trel.||Palma china|
|Yucca declinata Laferr.|
|Yucca desmetiana Baker|
|Yucca elata (Engelm.) Engelm.||Soaptree yucca|
|Yucca endlichiana Trel.|
|Yucca faxoniana Sarg. (syn. Yucca torreyi)||Torrey yucca|
|Yucca filamentosa L.||Spoonleaf yucca, filament yucca, or Adam's needle|
|Yucca filifera Chabaud||Palma china|
|Yucca flaccida Haw.||Flaccid leaf yucca|
|Yucca gigantea Lem. (syn. Yucca guatemalensis)||Spineless yucca|
|Yucca glauca Nutt.||Great Plains yucca|
|Yucca gloriosa L. (including Yucca recurvifolia)||Moundlily yucca, Adam's needle, Spanish dagger|
|Yucca grandiflora Gentry||Sahuiliqui yucca|
|Yucca harrimaniae Trel. (syn. Yucca nana)||Harriman's yucca|
|Yucca intermedia McKelvey||Intermediate yucca|
|Yucca jaliscensis (Trel.) Trel.||Izote|
|Yucca lacandonica Gómez Pompa & J.Valdés||Tropical yucca|
|Yucca linearifolia Clary|
|Yucca luminosa (syn. Yucca rigida)||Blue yucca|
|Yucca madrensis Gentry||Soco yucca|
|Yucca mixtecana García-Mend.|
|Yucca necopina Shinners|
|Yucca neomexicana Wooton & Standl.||New Mexican Spanish bayonet|
|Yucca pallida McKelvey||Pale yucca|
|Yucca periculosa Baker||Izote|
|Yucca potosina Rzed.|
|Yucca queretaroensis Piña Luján|
|Yucca reverchonii Trel.|
|Yucca rostrata Engelm. ex Trel.||Beaked yucca, Big Bend yucca|
|Yucca rupicola Scheele||Texas yucca, or twist-leaf yucca|
|Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies||Mojave yucca|
|Yucca × schottii||Hoary yucca or mountain yucca|
|Yucca sterilis (Neese & S.L.Welsh) S.L.Welsh & L.C.Higgins|
|Yucca tenuistyla Trel.|
|Yucca thompsoniana Trel.||Thompson's yucca|
|Yucca treculeana Carrière||Texas bayonet, Trecul's yucca|
|Yucca utahensis McKelvey|
|Yucca valida Brandegee||Datilillo|
In the years from 1897 to 1907, Carl Ludwig Sprenger created and named 122 Yucca hybrids.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yucca.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Yucca.|